ice cores


Na, NH4, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4, MS,

Proxy measurement:

Na, NH4, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4, MS,

Sampling resolution:







This research is funded by the Office Of Polar Programs, National Science FoundationProgram: US ITASEPrincipal Investigator: Paul A. Mayewski (paul.mayewskiATmaine.edu)Additional Contact: Daniel A. Dixon (daniel.dixonATmaine.edu)Contact Information: Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, 303 Bryand Global Sciences Building, Orono, Maine 04469-5790, USATel: 1-207-581-2190Fax: 1-207-581-1203Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Info: Sub-annually resolved ice core chemistry data from various sites on the Antarctic Ice Sheet were obtained from 1999 to 2008 during the US International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) deployments. Researchers conducted experiments approximately every 100-300 km looking for clues representing climatic conditions over the past 200-1000+ years. Ice cores, obtained for the glaciochemical component of the US ITASE research, were analyzed for soluble major ion content. At each site, a ~3-inch diameter ice core was drilled to depths as great as 120 m. Surface snow samples were collected every ~10-40 km. High-resolution chemical analysis (up to ~75 measurements per meter) was used to define each core-chemistry year based on peaks in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, CH3SO3- (methylsulfonate), and in some cases trace elements. Extreme events such as volcanic eruptions provide absolute age horizons within each core that are easily identified in chemical profiles. Such chemical analysis is also useful for quantifying anthropogenic impact, biogeochemical cycling, and for reconstructing past atmospheric circulation patterns.

Data entered by name:

Dixon, Daniel

Data entered by email:

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main reference(s):

Kreutz KJ, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI. 2000. The effect of spatial and temporal accumulation rate variability in West Antarctica on soluble ion deposition. Geophysical Research Letters 27: 2517-2520.Bertler, N., Mayewski, P.A., Alberto Aristarain, P.Barrett, S.Becagli, Ronaldo Torma Bernardo, Xiao Cunde, M.Curran, Qin Dahe, D.Dixon, Francisco Adolfo Ferron, H. Fischer, Markus Frey, M.Frezzotti, F. Fundel, Christophe Genthon, R.Gragani, G.Hamilton, M.Handley, Sungmin Hong, E.Isaksson, Ren Jiawen, Kokichi Kamiyama, Satoru Kanamori, Eija Karkas, L.Karlöf, S.Kaspari, K.Kreutz, A.Kurbatov, E.Meyerson, Hideaki Motoyama, R. Mulvaney, Zhang Mingjun, H.Oerter, E.Osterberg, M.Proposito, A.Pyne, U.Ruth, Jefferson Cardia Simoes, B.Smith, S.Sneed, Kimmo Teinila, F. Traufetter, R.Udisti, Aki Virkkula, Okitsugu Watanabe, B.Williamson, E. Wolff, Li Zhongqin, 2005, Snow chemistry across Antarctica, Annals of Glaciology 41, 167-179. Dixon, D., Mayewski, P.A., Kaspari, S., Sneed, S., and Handley, M., 2004, A 200 year sub annual record of the primary sources of sulfate in West Antarctica, Annals of Glaciology 39, 545-556. Dixon, D., Mayewski, P.A., Kaspari, S., Sneed, S. and Handley, M., 2005, Connections between West Antarctic ice core sulfate and climate over the last 200+ years, Annals of Glaciology 41, 155-156. Kaspari, S., Mayewski, P.A., Dixon, D., Spikes, V.B., Sneed, S.B., Handley, M.J., and Hamilton, 2004, Climate variability in West Antarctica derived from annual accumulation rate records from ITASE firn/ice cores, Annals of Glaciology 39, 585-594. Kaspari, S., Mayewski, P.A., Dixon, D., Sneed, S.B., and Handley, M.J., 2005, Sources and transport pathways for marine aerosol species into West Antarctica, Annals of Glaciology 42, 1-9. Mayewski, P.A., K. A. Maasch, J.W.C. White, E. Meyerson, I. Goodwin, V.I. Morgan., T. van Ommen, M.A.J. Curran, J. Souney, and K. Kreutz, 2005, A 700 year record of Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical climate variability, Annals of Glaciology 39, 127-132. Mayewski, P.A., Frezzotti, M., Bertler, N., van Ommen, T., Hamilton, G.H., Jacka, J., Welch, B., Frey, M., Dahe, Q., Ren, J., Simoes, J., Fily, M., Oerter, H., Nishio, F., Iasaksson, E., Mulvaney, R., Holmund, P., Lipenkov, V. and Goodwin, I., 2005, The International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) – An Overview, Annals of Glaciology 41, 180-185. Mayewski, P.A., Maasch, K., Yan, Y., Kang, S., Meyerson, E., Sneed, S., Kaspari, S., Dixon, D., Morgan, V., van Ommen, T., and Curran, M., 2005, Solar forcing of the polar atmosphere, Annals of Glaciology 41, 147-154. Mayewski, P.A. and Maasch, K., 2006, Recent warming inconsistent with natural association between temperature and atmospheric circulation over the last 2000 years, Climate of the Past (Discussions), on line: http://www.copernicus.org/EGU/cp/cpd/2/327/cpd-2-327.htm. Steig, E.J., P.A. Mayewski, D. Dixon, S. Kaspari, M. Frey, D.P. Schneider, S.A. Arcone, G. Hamilton, B. Spikes, M.R. Albert, D.A. Meese, A. Gow, C.A. Shuman, J. White, S. Sneed, J. Flaherty, M. Wumkes and US ITASE Project Members, 2005, High-resolution ice cores from US ITASE (West Antarctica): development and validation of chronologies and determination of precision and accuracy, Annals of Glaciology 41, 77-84. Yan, Y., Mayewski, P.A., Kang, S., and Meyerson, E., 2005, An ice core proxy for Antarctic circumpolar wind intensity, Annals of Glaciology 41, 121-130.

Data storage link 1:


Data storage link 2:


Current dating method:

Annual layer counting, > 150 mm we, volcanic data (ECM, SO4, DEP)

Annual snow acc rate:

60-250 mm we

Category: Antarctica2k