High Pacific native Urban


Sub-tropical central/western Pacific





Proxy measurement:

isotope measurement O18

Sampling resolution:


Climate sensitivity:

linear correlation

Dating resolution:


Dating information:






All uncertainties:

+OR- 0.08 d18O and = +or-0.05d13c analytical precision. Age adjustment of 1yr over full record, adjusted for seasonal variations.High internal and external correlations-95%.Adjusted for ENSO.


Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary information can be found in the abstracts of papers listed below:Today, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system is the primary driver of interannual variability in global climate, but its long-term behaviour is poorly understood. Instrumental observations reveal a shift in 1976 towards warmer and wetter conditions in the tropical Pacific, with widespread climatic and ecological consequences1, 2, 3. This shift, unique over the past century4, has prompted debate over the influence of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases on ENSO variability5, 6, 7. Here we present a 155-year ENSO reconstruction from a central tropical Pacific coral that provides new evidence for long-term changes in the regional mean climate and its variability. A gradual transition in the early twentieth century and the abrupt change in 1976, both towards warmer and wetter conditions, co-occur with changes in variability. In the mid–late nineteenth century, cooler and drier background conditions coincided with prominent decadal variability; in the early twentieth century, shorter-period (approx2.9 years) variability intensified. After 1920, variability weakens and becomes focused at interannual timescales; with the shift in 1976, variability with a period of about 4 years becomes prominent. Our results suggest that variability in the tropical Pacific is linked to the region's mean climate, and that changes in both have occurred during periods of natural as well as anthropogenic climate forcing.

Data entered by name:

Cullen Stephen

Data entered by email:

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Main reference(s):

Urban, F.E.; Cole, J.E.; Overpeck, J.T., 2000 Influence of mean climate change on climate variability from a 155-year tropical Pacific coral record, Nature 407, 989-993 (26 October 2000)

Link to reference 1:


Data storage link 1:


Data storage link 2:


Current dating method:

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Annual snow acc rate:

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Category: Ocean2k