Low Southern Reconstruction Yan


indonesia and galapagos


marine sediments (coretop)

Proxy measurement:

The Indonesian rainfall was derived from a salinity reconstruction based on planktonic-foraminifera d18O and the Mg/Ca ratio

Sampling resolution:


Climate sensitivity:



50 AD


1995 AD


The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate phenomenon in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The interannual climate variations have been shown to modify both the Hadley and Walker meridional and zonal atmospheric circulations, with strong impacts on global climate. Proxy-based reconstructions of the Southern Oscillation Index on a multi-decadal scale have shown that the strength and frequency of El Niño occurrences have varied over the past millennium. Here we compile reconstructions of precipitation from regions that experience substantial ENSO variability to extend the multidecadal-scale Southern Oscillation Index to include the past 2,000 years. We find that the Medieval Warm Period (~AD 800–1300) was characterized by a negative index, which indicates more El Niño-dominated conditions, whereas during the Little Ice Age (~AD 1400-1850) more La Niña-dominated conditions prevailed. The Southern Oscillation Index we derive is significantly correlated with reconstructions of solar irradiance and mean Northern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations.

Data entered by name:

Alvarez-Castro, MC

Data entered by email:

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Main reference(s):

Yan, H., L. Sun, Y. Wang, W. Huang, S. Qiu, and C. Yang. A record of the Southern Oscillation Index for the past 2,000 years from precipitation proxies. Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1231

Link to reference 1:


Data storage link 1:


Current dating method:

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Annual snow acc rate:

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Category: Ocean2k