We gratefully acknowledge General Research Fund project funded by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR (ref. no. 18607521), “Climate Reconstruction and Impacts from the Archives of Societies” Working Group of Past Global Changes (PAGES CRIAS), Individual Research Scheme, Dean’s Research Fund from Education University of Hong Kong (Grant No. FLASS/DRF/IRS-3), and Research Cluster Fund from Education University of Hong Kong (Grant No. RG79/2019–2020R).