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Africa2k resources

Asrat, A., Baker, A., Leng, M.J., Gunn, J.and Umer, M., 2008. Environmental monitoring in the Mechara Caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: implications for speleothem paleoclimate studies. International Journal of Speleology, 37, 207-220.

Baker, A., Asrat, A., Fairchild, I.J., Leng, M.J., Wynn, P.M., Bryant, C., Genty, D. and Umer, M., 2007. Analysis of the climate signal contained within delta-18O and growth rate parameters in two Ethiopian stalagmites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 2975-2988.

Chase, B. M., Meadows, M. E., Scott, L., Thomas, D. S. G., Marais, E., Sealy, J., andReimer, P. J. (2009). A record of rapid Holocene climate change preserved in hyrax middens from southwestern Africa. Geology 37, 703-706.

Darbyshire, I., Lamb, H.F., and Umer, M. (2003) Forest clearance and regrowth in northern Ethiopia during the last 3000 years. The Holocene 13 (3), 553-562.

Gil-Romera, G., Scott, L., Marais, E., and Brook, G. A. (2007). Late Holocene environmentalchange in the northwestern Namib Desert margin: new fossil pollen evidence from hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 249, 1-17.

Holmgren, K., Lee-Thorp, J. A., Cooper, G. R. J., Lundblad, K., Partridge, T. C., Scott, L., Sithaldeen, R., Talma, A. S., and Tyson, P. D. (2003). Persistent millennial-scale climatic variability over the past 25,000 years in Southern Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 2311-2326.

Knight, J. R., Allan, R. J., Folland, C. K., Vellinga, M., and Mann, M. E. (2005). A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L20708.

Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Telford RJ, Ayenew T, Umer M. (2007). Oxygen and carbon isotope, composition of authigenic carbonate from an Ethiopian lake: a climate record of the last 2000 years. The Holocene, 17: 517-526.

Meadows, M. E., Seliane, M., and Chase, B. M. (2010). Holocene palaeoenvironments of theCederberg and Swartruggens mountains, Western Cape, South Africa: pollen and stable isotope evidence from hyrax dung middens. Journal of Arid Environments 74, 786-793.

Nicholson, S.E (2000): The Nature of Rainfall Variability over Africa on Time-Scales of Decades to Millenia. Global and Planetary Change, 26, 137-138.

Nicholson, S.E. (1999): Historical and Modern Fluctuations of Lakes Tanganyika and Rukwa and their Relationship to Rainfall Variability. Climatic Change 41, 53-71.

Nicholson, S.E. (1998): Fluctuations of Rift Valley Lakes Malawi and Chilwa During Historical times: A Synthesis of Geological, Archaeological and Historical Information. Environmental Change and Response in East African Lakes, 207-231.

Nicholson, S. E., and X. Yin 1998: Variations of African lakes during the last two centuries . In Water resources variability in Africa during the XXth Century (E. Servat, D. Hughes, J.-M;. Fritsch and M. Hulme, eds.), IAHS Press,Wallingford, UK, 181-188.

Ngomanda A., Jolly D., Bentaleb I., Chepstow-Lusty A., M’voubou M., Maley J., Fontugne M., Oslisly R., Rabenkogo N., 2007. Lowland rainforest response to hydrological changes during the last 1500 years in Gabon, Western Equatorial Africa. Quaternary Research, 67, 411-425.

Russell, J. M., Verschuren, D., and Eggermont, H. (2007). Spatial complexity of "Little Ice Age" climate in East Africa: sedimentary records from two crater lake basins in western Uganda. The Holocene 17, 183-193.

Russell, J. M., and Johnson, T. C. (2005). A high-resolution geochemical record from Lake Edward, Uganda Congo and the timing and causes of tropical African drought during the late Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1375-1389.

Scott, L., and Woodborne, S. (2007). Vegetation history inferred from pollen in late Quaternary faecal deposits (hyraceum) in the Cape winter-rain region and its bearing on past climates in South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 941-953.

Shanahan, T.M., Overpeck, J.T., Anchukaitis, K.J., Beck, J.W., Cole, J.E., Dettman, D.L., Peck, J.A., Scholz, C.A., and King, J.W. (2009) Atlantic Forcing of Persistent Drought in West Africa: Science 324, p. 377-380.

Verschuren, D., Laird, K. R. and Cumming, B. F., 2000. Rainfall and drought in equatorialEast Africa during the past 1100 years. Nature 403: 410-414.

Zewdu Eshetu, 2009. Forests as Natural Proxies of Climate Variability in the Highlands of Ethiopia 2009. In 2nd East African Quaternary Research Association Workshop, 22-15 May 2009, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Zewdu Eshetu; Iain Robertson; Steven W Leavitt, Neil J. Loader. 2009. Rainfall Variability and Drought History in Ethiopia, and Societal Response to Climate Change. In Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting Conference, 22-28 March 2009, Las Vegas, USA.

Zewdu Eshetu, 2006. Rainfall variability in Ethiopia from the ring-width characteristics of Juniperus procera at the 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology, June 11-17, 2006 Beijing, China.

Wils, T.H.G., Eshetu, Z., 2007. Reconstructing the flow of the River Nile from Juniperus procera and Prunus africana tree rings (Ethiopia) - an explorative study on cross-dating and climate signal, in: Tree Rings in Archaeology, Climatology and Ecology (TRACE), Volume 5, Proc. dendrosymposium 2006. P. 277-284.

Wils THG, Robertson I, Eshetu Z, Sass-Klaassen UGW, Koprowski M (2009) Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating. Dendrochronologia 27: 45-58