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Planetary Boundaries Working Group

Nov 2022
Nov 2025

Legend: Stability landscape showing the pathway of the Earth System out of the Holocene to its present position in the hotter Anthropocene. The two divergent pathways of the Earth System in the future (broken arrows) are the current Hothouse Earth pathway driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and biosphere degradation toward a planetary threshold at ∼2 °C. The other pathway leads to Stabilized Earth, a pathway of Earth System stewardship guided by human-created feedbacks to a quasi-stable, human-maintained basin of attraction. Diagram from: Steffen et al. 2018. (Creative Commons License)