Search

Student

PhD position in Structural Glaciology - Bremerhaven, Germany

Bremerhaven, Germany
Theme
Category
Logistics
Project Title: Microstructure and Air Inclusions in polar ice

The position is limited to 3 years. The salary will be paid in accordance with EU HORIZON2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie rules. The place of employment will be Bremerhaven. The graduating university will be Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen.


This Early-Stage Researcher (ESR, PhD student) position is part of EU HORIZON2020 funded framework of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network (ITN) DEEPICE. DEEPICE is a research and training network on understanding deep ice core proxies to infer past Antarctic climate dynamics. It is funded by the EU HORIZON2020 programme and consists of 10 academic partner organisations from 10 European countries plus nine collaborating institutions from academia and industry. In total 15 early-stage researchers (PhD students) will be employed after a competitive recruitment process and work together within the European DEEPICE consortium.

Due to the funding guidelines, the following applies:
Eligibility: The candidate for this position can have any nationality but must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in Germany for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately before the recruitment date. The candidates must, at the time of recruitment by the host organization, be in the first four years of their research careers and must not yet have been awarded a title of PhD.

Description
The climatic and environmental records in deep ice cores can be challenged when deformation is inhomogeneous and localised, eventually leading to disturbances (e.g. folds) affecting the ice layers' stratigraphy at large depths. The effects on deformation by the presence and interaction of second phases (impurities and air inclusions) with the ice crystals can initiate and affect disturbances by, e.g. localised flow.
These effects are poorly understood and thus shall be investigated. On top of that deformation, at least partly by dislocation creep and thus resulting recrystallisation (e.g. grain boundary migration), has the potential to alter the original, depositional stratification. Further recrystallisation processes lead to growth of inclusions, such as air hydrates in the deep, old ice, which gives the potential of an independent dating tool.

You will provide the basis using ice microscopic investigations for advising climate reconstruction through developing ideas and methods on the mechanisms sketched above. This will start with inspection of available micrographs, complemented by new discontinuous measurements of crystallographic-preferred orientations and second phase inclusions. Integration with available radio-echo sounding data on the large scale will round off the understanding we gain from your inspection. Comparison of the obtained information with climate-related ice core data (water isotopes, impurities) and evaluation of the information on disturbances in the stratified ice will be ensured by your close integration into the DEEPICE cohort, as well as in AWI glaciology and Tübingen Structural Glaciology. The envisaged sample material is from existing ice cores (e.g. EDC) provided through sample requests from the BE-OIC Physical Properties consortium and the expected BE-OIC cores from Antarctica.
Tasks
- Work independently, develop and carry through your research project
- Attend PhD courses to learn additional skills
- Write scientific articles and your PhD thesis with support from your supervisors
- Disseminate your research, participate in network related and international conferences and workshops
- To stay at a partner research institution for at least six months to develop new skills
- Contribute to the scientific discussions and activities of the wider working group to complement and integrate your project into the big picture of glaciology
Requirements
- Previous experience in microscopy, microstructure analysis or crystallographic studies
- Well-founded knowledge of basic physics and geoscience.
- Excellent written and oral proficiency in English and/or German to communicate on a daily basis
- Good written and oral proficiency in English to write scientific publications and deliver scientific presentations is a plus
- Mobility to spend periods at Utrecht University, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, at the University of Copenhagen, PAGES International Project Office in Bern and the Schäfter+Kirchhoff GmbH in Hamburg.

As criteria for the assessment of your qualifications, emphasis will also be placed on previous publications (if any) and relevant work experience distinct interest in the scientific exchange and communication within the group members and interdisciplinary collaborators
Applications
Apply online: https://recruitingapp-5442.de.umantis.com/Vacancies/1020/Description/2
Application deadline
Further information
For further information, please contact Prof. Dr. Ilka Weikusat (Ilka.Weikusat@awi.de; +49(471)4831-1968).
Contact email
Ilka.Weikusat@awi.de

PhD position in cryptotephra layers in central-European lake sediments - Prague, Czech Republic

Prague, Czechia
Category
Logistics
PhD student position at the Charles University, Prague.

Project: Identification of volcanic ashes (IVA) in sediments of Central European lakes
Research group: Geophysical petrology in interdisciplinary research + Extraterrestrial Geology and Geophysics
Description
IVA project would focus on occurrence of Late Quaternary volcanic ashes (tephra layers) in sedimentary lake records in order to explore the avenues how to effectively identify these important chronological markers.

Tephrochronology is a crucial stratigraphic method for dating and synchronizing natural archives and paleoenvironmental data, including climatic events. As tephras have unique chemical properties, they can be assigned to a specific volcanic eruption. Moreover, there is potential to find out characteristic physical properties, e.g., magnetic signatures. This is because the molten volcanic material has large variation in precipitation of the magnetic minerals in tephras.
Tasks
A novel way of small tephra grains characterization is the use of magnetic susceptibility as well as frequency and field dependent magnetic susceptibility. The PhD candidate will study tephras in lake sediment cores retrieved from lakes and paleolakes situated in various regions of Czechia and Slovakia (Bohemian Forest, Třeboň Basin, Tatra Mts). An important part of the PhD project will be intensive cooperation with experts within an interdisciplinary team.
Requirements
For details of requirements, please contact Research group leader and Project supervisor, Gunther Kletetschka: gunther.kletetschka@natur.cuni.cz
Applications
Apply online: https://stars-natur.cz/phd-positions/geology/identification-of-volcanic-ashes-iva-in-sediments-of-central-european-lakes?topicId=225&back=ds544&do=applicationModal
Application deadline
Further information
Please contact Research group leader and Project supervisor, Gunther Kletetschka: gunther.kletetschka@natur.cuni.cz
To view the job description visit: https://stars-natur.cz/phd-positions/geology/identification-of-volcanic-ashes-iva-in-sediments-of-central-european-lakes?topicId=225&back=ds544&do=applicationModal
Contact email
gunther.kletetschka@natur.cuni.cz

PhD Position in Structural Glaciology at AWI - DEEPICE Project

Bremerhaven, Germany
Category
Logistics
Supervisor : Ilka Weikusat

Position start date : March 2022

The position is limited to 3 years. The salary will be paid in accordance with EU HORIZON2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie rules. The place of employment will be Bremerhaven. The graduating university will be Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen.

All doctoral candidates will be members of AWI's postgraduate program POLMAR or another graduate school and thus benefit from a comprehensive training program and extensive support measures.

The AWI is characterised by
- our scientific success - excellent research
- collaboration and cooperation - intra-institute, national and international, interdisciplinary
- opportunities to develop – on the job, aiming at other positions and beyond AWI
- a culture of reconciling work and family – an audited and well-supported aspect of our operation
- our outstanding research infrastructure – ships, stations, aircraft, laboratories and more
- an international environment – everyday contacts with people from all over the world
- having an influence – fundamental research with social and political relevance
- flat hierarchies – facilitating freedom and responsibility
- exciting science topics, with opportunities also in technology, administration and infrastructure

Equal opportunities are an integral part of our personnel policy. The AWI aims to increase the number of female employees and therefore strongly encourages qualified women to apply.

Disabled applicants will be given preference when equal qualifications are present.

The AWI fosters the compatibility of work and family in various ways and has received a number of awards as a result of this engagement.
Description
Project Description:

The climatic and environmental records in deep ice cores can be challenged when deformation is inhomogeneous and localised, eventually leading to disturbances (e.g. folds) affecting the ice layers' stratigraphy at large depths. The effects on deformation by the presence and interaction of second phases (impurities and air inclusions) with the ice crystals can initiate and affect disturbances by, e.g. localised flow.
These effects are poorly understood and thus shall be investigated. On top of that deformation, at least partly by dislocation creep and thus resulting recrystallisation (e.g. grain boundary migration), has the potential to alter the original, depositional stratification. Further recrystallisation processes lead to growth of inclusions, such as air hydrates in the deep, old ice, which gives the potential of an independent dating tool.

You will provide the basis using ice microscopic investigations for advising climate reconstruction through developing ideas and methods on the mechanisms sketched above. This will start with inspection of available micrographs, complemented by new discontinuous measurements of crystallographic-preferred orientations and second phase inclusions. Integration with available radio-echo sounding data on the large scale will round off the understanding we gain from your inspection. Comparison of the obtained information with climate-related ice core data (water isotopes, impurities) and evaluation of the information on disturbances in the stratified ice will be ensured by your close integration into the DEEPICE cohort, as well as in AWI glaciology and Tübingen Structural Glaciology. The envisaged sample material is from existing ice cores (e.g. EDC) provided through sample requests from the BE-OIC Physical Properties consortium and the expected BE-OIC cores from Antarctica.

Background:

This Early-Stage Researcher (ESR, PhD student) position is part of EU HORIZON 2020 DEEPICE Project, an Innovative Training Network funded through the framework of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions.

DEEPICE is a research and training network on understanding deep ice core proxies to infer past Antarctic climate dynamics. It consists of 10 academic partner organisations from 10 European countries recruiting 15 early-stage researchers, as well as 11 collaborating institutions from academia and industry.

DEEPICE aims to train a new generation of scientists working on issues related to past climate change in Antarctica by taking advantage of the unique scientific dynamic of the on-going EU H2020 "Beyond EPICA-Oldest Ice Core" project (2019-2025) which aims at extracting a 1.5 million years old ice core in Antarctica.
Tasks
Tasks:
- Work independently, develop and carry through your research project
- Attend PhD courses to learn additional skills
- Write scientific articles and your PhD thesis with support from your supervisors
- Disseminate your research, participate in network related and international conferences and workshops
- To stay at a partner research institution for at least six months to develop new skills
- Contribute to the scientific discussions and activities of the wider working group to complement and integrate your project into the big picture of glaciology
Requirements
Requirements:
- Previous experience in microscopy, microstructure analysis or crystallographic studies
- Well-founded knowledge of basic physics and geoscience.
- Excellent written and oral proficiency in English and/or German to communicate on a daily basis
- Good written and oral proficiency in English to write scientific publications and deliver scientific presentations is a plus
- Mobility to spend periods at Utrecht University, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, at the University of Copenhagen, PAGES International Project Office in Bern and the Schäfter+Kirchhoff GmbH in Hamburg.

As criteria for the assessment of your qualifications, emphasis will also be placed on:
- previous publications (if any) and relevant work experience
- distinct interest in the scientific exchange and communication within the
group members and interdisciplinary collaborators

Due to the funding guidelines, the following applies:

Eligibility: The candidate for this position can have any nationality but must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in Germany for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately before the recruitment date. The candidates must, at the time of recruitment by the host organization, be in the first four years of their research careers and must not yet have been awarded a title of PhD.

For each of the early-stage researcher positions a recruitment panel adhering to strict gender equality and equal opportunity rules will be set up. Selection criteria will encompass the potential as researchers, creativity, level of independence, teamwork ability, knowledge, and communication experience.
Applications
Please submit your application by February 15th 2022, exclusively online.
Reference number 21/230/D/Geo-b.
https://recruitingapp-5442.de.umantis.com/Vacancies/1020/Description/2
Further information
For further information, please contact Prof. Dr. Ilka Weikusat (Ilka.Weikusat@awi.de; +49(471)4831-1968).
Contact email
Ilka.Weikusat@awi.de

PhD positions in Environmental Science - Södertörn University, Sweden

Stockholm, Sweden
Category
Logistics
- Doctoral studentship in Environmental Science specialising in climate and environmental change, Ref AP-2021/698
- 4-year studentship
- Start date 1 September 2022

Description
Environmental Science is a broad interdisciplinary research subject that examines societal interactions with natural values, processes and resources. Environmental Science covers the study of ecological, climatic and other natural processes that affect ecosystems over space and time, human-induced environmental problems, and environmental policy, governance and sustainability challenges. Knowledge in both natural and social sciences is necessary for the understanding of environmental and, more broadly, sustainability challenges. Research in Environmental Science at Södertörn University focuses on two integrated themes: (1) Environment and (2) Sustainability Challenges and Pathways.

These doctoral studentships are within the Environment research theme, which consists of overlapping research topics that are related to climate and environmental change, ecosystem functioning, ecological processes, and human impacts. The overarching objective of the theme is to understand the history and functions of our changing environment and the effects of adverse impacts from human activities, relevant to management, conservation and policy decisions leading to a sustainable future. The positions are affiliated with the Baltic and Eastern European Graduate School (BEEGS) and the research plan will be assessed for its relevance to the graduate school’s specific geographic area, i.e. the Baltic Sea region or Eastern European area, as well as for its relevance for the Environment research theme.

Tasks
These doctoral positions include admission to third-cycle education, i.e. research level, and employment on a doctoral studentship. The intended outcome for students admitted to third-cycle education is a Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The programme covers 240 credits, which is the equivalent of four years of full-time study. A doctoral student’s working hours should primarily be dedicated to third-cycle studies, but may include education, research and/or administration up to 20% of full-time.
Requirements
The general entry requirements are:

- a second-cycle/Master’s level qualification,
- fulfilment of the requirements for courses comprising at least 240 credits, of which at least 60 credits are awarded at second-cycle/Master’s level, or the acquisition of substantially equivalent knowledge in some other way in Sweden or abroad.

The Faculty Board may permit an exemption from the general entry requirements for an individual applicant, if there are special grounds (Ordinance 2010:1064).

The specific entry requirements are:

- A qualified applicant has the equivalent of 90 credits, including a degree project worth at least 15 credits at second-cycle level, in Environmental Science or a related subject (e.g. Biology/Ecology, Earth Science) that is of central importance to the Environment research theme. The suggested topic for the doctoral thesis, as described in the research plan, must be clearly relevant to the study of the Baltic Sea region or the Eastern European area, as well as to the Environment research theme.
Applications
The following criteria are considered during selection:

- autonomy and originality in the formulation of research questions, analysis and presentation of previous work.
- theoretical and methodological stringency in previous work and in the research plan.
- research experience or relevant professional activity in Environmental Science.
- good skills in the English language and any other languages that are important for work on the thesis.
- a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary background relevant to Environmental Science.
- relevance of the research plan to the study of the Baltic Sea region or the Eastern European area.
- relevance of the research plan to the Environment research theme.
- feasibility of the research plan in terms of time, resources and practical requirements.
- communication and cooperation skills.

Other considerations:

Since the successful completion of a doctoral degree requires guidance and a suitable research environment, a lack of supervisory capacity pertinent to the suggested research topic may mean that applicants cannot be admitted to the third-cycle programme. To minimise this risk, applicants are advised to link their research plan to relevant parts of the Environment research theme and to existing research interests and research projects in Environmental Science at Södertörn University.

The application deadline is 14 February 2022.
Application deadline
Further information
Information and instructions for the application procedure are available on our website, www.sh.se.

When applying, please use Södertörns University’s web-based recruitment system ReachMee.
Please visit the job website for more information: https://www.sh.se/english/sodertorn-university/meet-sodertorn-university/this-is-sodertorn-university/vacant-positions?rmpage=job&rmjob=5201&rmlang=UK
Contact email
elinor.andren@sh.se

PhD position - Northumbria University, UK

Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Theme
Category
Logistics
This project is part of the NERC ONE Planet Doctoral Training Partnership between Nortumbria and Newcastle Universities. It includes 3.5 years of fees (Home/EU/International), an annual living allowance (£15,650) and a Research Training Support Grant (for travel, consumables, etc). The position is based at Northumbria University and the supervisor is Dr Vasile Ersek.
Description
Anthropogenic climate change is seen both as an overall warming of the atmosphere and oceans, and as shifts in the atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. These changes can have a huge impact on society, disrupting climate patterns to which humans have been used to for hundreds of years.

One of the most important atmospheric circulation patterns is the seasonal reversal of the winds in the tropics: The Monsoons. Because monsoon winds bring much of the yearly rainfall, they are critical to the survival of many millions of people worldwide. Studying the monsoon requires data that document how parameters such as rainfall and temperature change in space and time. However, instrumental data are only available in most cases for the last 100 years or so.

This is not sufficient to record the full range of possible patterns and changes. To go beyond the instrumental record, we need to find natural recorders of climate change. Cave stalagmites are one of the best ways to extract climate information from past centuries and millennia. Their growth is linked to the presence of water and the chemicals dissolved within it. In this project you will examine changes in the winter and summer monsoon by using stable isotopes and trace elements in stalagmites from caves in Central and Northern Vietnam.

We have identified stalagmites from these regions which grew during the last 60,000 years so you will be able to analyse changes many thousands of years into the past. Using these stalagmites, you will provide the long-term context for regional climate changes, identifying the magnitude of natural climate changes and the presence of tipping points or abrupt changes for periods when the climate system was both quite similar (e.g. late Holocene) and markedly different to today (e.g. Last Glacial Maximum). You will also collaborate with archaeologists and climate modellers to understand the impact of these changes on past human societies in SE Asia. This will be of direct value to policy makers and will contribute to our general understanding of societal risk to climate change.
Tasks
Geochemical analyses of speleothems (including, but not limited to, stable isotopes, trace elements, fluid inclusions)
Fieldwork
Data Analysis
Manuscript writing
Requirements
MSc or equivalent degree in Earth Sciences, Geochemistry and related fields
Ability to do fieldwork in caves, some in remote settings
Applications
Deadline: January 24, 2022
Please apply via this link (https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/study-at-northumbria/courses/doctor-of-philosophy-drfxxr7/) and select October 2022 as your entrance date. Please enter the studentship code OP2255 into the studentship code field.
Application deadline
Further information
For more information, please contact Dr Vasile Ersek.
For more information about OnePlanet Doctoral Training Programme, please visit https://research.ncl.ac.uk/one-planet/ourprogramme/
Contact email
vasile.ersek@northumbria.ac.uk

2 x PhD positions on peatland modeling - Exeter and Leeds, UK

Exeter and Leeds, United Kingdom
Category
Logistics
Ecosystem and regional-global scale modelling of the effect of precipitation patterns on tropical peatland initiation, stability and growth

Tropical peatlands are globally important, but potentially vulnerable, carbon stores and provide a range of key ecosystem services (Page and Baird, 2016), yet they are understudied and are only just beginning to be modelled. Models are crucial to understanding how they might respond to future changes in climate and management. Recent empirical and modelling work on the NERC CongoPeat project (https://congopeat.net/), suggests that sub- and inter-annual patterns of rainfall as well as the total amount of annual rainfall can drastically affect tropical peatland functioning and even whether a peatland is able to exist in a given location. However, such conclusions are very tentative, and it is not known whether tropical peatlands outside of the Congo show similar sensitivity to hydrological conditions. This PhD project seeks to fill this research gap and involves an exciting collaboration between scientists at the University of Leeds and the University of Exeter.
Description
A new dataset from across a range of tropical peatlands is currently being collected in the Leverhulme-funded project TroPeaCC led by Professor Angela Gallego-Sala at the University of Exeter and will add to a large dataset collected in the Congo basin on CongoPeat. In combination, these datasets will inform the development of new realistic pan-tropical peatland models, as part of wider climate change modelling efforts. The new models will be used to project the fate of the tropical peatland carbon store under a range of possible future climates and will help reveal how management might exacerbate (peatland drainage) or mitigate (peatland re-wetting) any climate-related changes.

Potential for high impact outcome

The project will provide greatly enhanced capacity in understanding the role of tropical peatlands in the global carbon budget under both climate and land-use change. The project will produce several outputs, including (a) 3–4 academic publications in high-profile journals, (b) improved peatland representation in climate models via JULES, and (iii) policy-relevant findings that can be used to influence management across the tropics.

Training

You will work under the supervision of Prof. Andy Baird and Dr Paul Morris at the University of Leeds and Dr Sarah Chadburn and Professor Angela Gallego-Sala at the University of Exeter (Departments of Mathematics and Geography, respectively). You will develop high-level ecological modelling skills and advanced data analysis skills. You will also receive training in academic paper writing and presenting. Training will be provided the use of DigiBog and JULES and in model construction and coding.

You will be supported throughout the studentship by a comprehensive PGR skills training programme that follows the VITAE Research Development Framework and focuses on knowledge and intellectual abilities; personal effectiveness; research governance and organisation; and engagement, influence and impact. Training needs will be assessed at the beginning of the project and at key stages throughout the project and you will be encouraged to participate in the training and development courses that are run within the NERC DTP and the University of Leeds to support your research. Leeds is a leading international research hub for peatland science and you will join a group of active researchers investigating peatlands across the globe. There will be opportunities too to spend time at Exeter with researchers working on the JULES model. You will be provided with dedicated office space, and access to high performance computing facilities will be available. You will have the opportunity to work with teams of international climate scientists.
Tasks
During this PhD project, you will use two complementary modelling approaches,
(a) a ‘point’ to ecosystem (individual peatland) scale ecohydrological model (DigiBog), and
(b) a global land surface model, the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), to explore the impact of water supply and regime (in particular rainfall seasonality and intensity) on tropical peatland functioning. There are four main tasks:

Analysis of an inter-continental dataset of water-table dynamics for peatland sites across the tropics (sites in S America, central Africa, and SE Asia) that will provide novel information on hydrological conditions in tropical peatlands. Other collaboration sites for which data may become available will be added to the overall dataset.

Use of the new datasets to develop and test new pan-tropical versions of DigiBog and JULES, with a focus on the dynamic interactions between peat, groundwater and rainfall.

Use of both models under a range of possible future climates to help understand the vulnerability of tropical peatlands to climate change, including changes in rainfall amount and seasonality.

Collaboration with colleagues at Exeter to apply JULES to the global tropical peatland area to assess how carbon uptake or emissions from tropical peatlands affect the remaining carbon budget available to keep global warming below dangerous levels, as set out in the Paris Agreement.

You will have an opportunity to be involved in the design of the project, including bringing in your own ideas to influence the research direction.
Requirements
You should have a keen interest in environmental issues and climate change, with a strong background in one or more of the following: physical geography, earth and environmental sciences, applied mathematics, computer modelling. Mathematical and coding skills are desirable but not essential, because full training will be provided during the PhD.
Applications
For information relating to the research project please contact the lead supervisor, Andy Baird (a.j.baird@leeds.ac.uk).

Visit the job advert online: https://panorama-dtp.ac.uk/research/ecosystem-and-regional-global-scale-modelling-of-the-effect-of-precipitation-patterns-on-tropical-peatland-initiation-stability-and-growth/
Application deadline
Contact email
a.j.baird@leeds.ac.uk
WWU logo

Masters, paleoclimate - Washington, USA

Bellingham, WA, United States
Category
Logistics
2 years, starting in Fall 2022.
Description
The Western Washington University Geology Department, located in Bellingham Washington, is soliciting applications for funded Masters Degree graduate research positions. Projects are flexible, but will broadly explore paleoclimate problems in the American west and adjacent north Pacific Ocean during the Cenozoic. Topics of particular interest include reconstructing hydrologic variability and seasonality during past greenhouse intervals that may serve as analogs for future warming as well as constraining the spatiotemporal variability of north Pacific marine heatwaves. Students will have the opportunity to work with cutting edge geochemical and isotope analyses in carbonates, develop new paleoclimate proxies and learn to work with data from general circulation models of Earth’s climate. Potential opportunities to participate in field work and collaborate with scientists at the University of Washington exist. For details, contact Dr. Casey Saenger: saengec@wwu.edu

The Geology Department at Western has a diverse and welcoming faculty with opportunities for doing world class geoscience research, field work and for gaining teaching experience. WWU has a long track record of preparing graduate students to be competitive for jobs with federal and state agencies in geoscience, private sector careers, as well as going on to PhD programs. Further information on our program can be found here: https://geology.wwu.edu/prospective-graduate-students. Applications are due January 15, 2022 to start Fall 2022.
Tasks
While responsibilities are flexible, they will likely include laboratory work measuring the isotopic composition of carbonates, the statistical analysis of results, and communication of the motivation and outcomes of the project in public venues.
Requirements
B.S. in Geology or a related natural science. Motivation to explore paleoclimatic questions with increasingly less direct oversight. Ability to follow through on commitments. Experience with scientific writing, familiarity with isotopes, and basic scripting (R, Python, Matlab) skills are a plus.
Applications
https://geology.wwu.edu/prospective-graduate-students.

Applications are due January 15, 2022 to start Fall 2022.
Application deadline
Further information
Casey Saenger
saengec@wwu.edu
https://wp.wwu.edu/caseysaenger/
Contact email
saengec@wwu.edu