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PAGES Magazine articles

Publications
Author
Damm-Johnsen T and Honan E
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Chadwick M and Allen CS
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Bouttes N and Capron E
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Vauthier A and Foxes in Love
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Christ A and Bierman P
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Guballa JD, Tangunan D, Antonio RJ and Nogot JJ
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Moncel M; illustrations: Girardclos Q
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Vannière B, Bouttes N, Gil-Romera G, Capron E and Eggleston S
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Horizons

Horizons highlights paleoscience topics of interest to the next generation, written in an easy to understand, visual format. It is a scientific review of why paleosciences are important, mainly aimed at older high-school students and undergraduate students interested in environmental issues and global change. It promotes the use of comics, pictures, and drawings that support short papers with strong messages about past sciences and how to prepare for a changing future.

 
Publications
Author
Gross W, Morrill C, Gille E and Shepherd E
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Magazine

As the spatial and temporal resolution of scientific datasets and the culture of data sharing grow, more data on past global changes are now available than ever before. Efficiently discovering, downloading, and integrating data into analyses is critical for making full use of this surge of information. Researchers have long used Graphical User Interfaces1, or GUIs, to manually search and download data, but Application Programming Interfaces, or APIs, can handle these tasks in a more automated fashion. In fact, APIs are the behind-the-scenes conduit for many different types of information we use every day, from weather forecasts within smartphone apps to flight schedules aggregated on travel websites.

APIs are the technological backbone that let two computer programs communicate over the internet. Each API defines a set of rules that specify the parameters by which requests (or "calls") can be made, as well as the format of the computer-readable information that is provided in response. World Data System repositories such as the World Data Service for Paleoclimatology (WDS-Paleo)2, PANGAEA3, and Neotoma4 provide APIs, as do other data and information sources such as publishers (e.g. Springer, Wiley), publication databases (e.g. CrossRef, Web of Science), domain-specific databases (e.g. Global Biodiversity Information Facility), and analysis tools (e.g. ArcGIS).

A request to an API is usually written in the form of a specially-formatted web address, or Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Scientists can call an API by simply entering such a URL into their web browser or by incorporating calls to an API in data analysis code. These new capabilities open more automated ways of first finding and accessing information, and then integrating information, both from different sources, and with different analysis tools.

Figure 1: Example workflow for programmatically using a World Data Service (WDS; e.g. WDS-Paleo, PANGAEA, Neotoma) API. Starting with user-developed code (yellow box), information from a data provider is discovered and accessed via the API, and then incorporated into a scientific analysis. See the WDS-Paleo API Tutorial8 for sample code in R and Python.

The ability to discover and download information programmatically via an API, as opposed to manually through a GUI, increases efficiency and diminishes the possibility for human error. For example, APIs make it easier to repeat a search (perhaps to find newly archived datasets or updates to existing datasets) or to gather information quickly for initial data exploration (perhaps to identify certain geographical areas or parameter types with sufficient amounts of data for an analysis). APIs can also make it more efficient to search multiple data providers. While requests must be structured to match the requirements of a specific API, they can be a useful way to locate data across several repositories. In fact, the federated data search provided by the WDS-Paleo API uses the Neotoma API to retrieve information about datasets.

API requests can be integrated with many programming languages (e.g. Python, R, MatLab), effectively creating a pipeline of data to tools for analysis. For example, functionality to access data from the PANGAEA, and Neotoma data repositories via their APIs exists in some Python5 and R6,7 packages (e.g. Goring et al. 2015) and the WDS-Paleo also provides example API requests in these languages8. Incorporating API requests into a scientific workflow promotes reproducibility and repeatability of research. Encoding all steps of the workflow from data discovery and download to processing and analysis provides complete documentation of the research methods, including the criteria used to select datasets. Some APIs also perform analysis directly: for example in the geospatial ecosystem, ArcGIS APIs9 and Open Geospatial Consortium APIs10 perform geospatial analysis, including image analysis and feature classification.

While APIs provide the ability to access formatted information directly from computer systems of authoritative sources, thereby streamlining data access and analysis, there are still some obstacles to integrating data from different repositories or sources seamlessly (e.g. EarthLife Consortium API11; Uhen et al. 2021). For example, interoperability and reusability of paleoenvironmental data also require enhanced common standards and workflows for metadata and data reporting (Bothe et al. 2021; Khider et al. 2019; Morrill et al. 2021; Williams et al. 2018). These improvements, in concert with technological advances such as APIs, will accelerate discovery from the many decades of data collection by the paleo community.

Publications
Author
Kaufman DS
PAGES Magazine articles
2022
Past Global Changes Magazine

Eleven new PAGES-funded Data Stewards are helping PAGES working groups to discover, analyze, and curate community data resources.

Professional scientific organizations are playing an increasingly important role in motivating the cultural shift toward FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) data practices (PAGES Scientific Steering Committee 2018). PAGES now offers its working groups financial support to help develop open data resources that facilitate high-impact global change research. The first nine PAGES Data Steward Scholarships are now underway. Stipends averaging USD 14,400, and ranging up to USD 20,000, recognize and reward early-career researchers and established specialists for their valued efforts to compile and curate data products for the long-term benefit of the global paleoscience community.

These data stewards are serving key roles in the life cycle of PAGES working groups, both in the data-discovery and data-reporting stages (Fig. 1). They are helping to accelerate the rate at which past-global-change data are entering the public domain. They are gathering the essential metadata needed for intelligent data reuse, and are formatting the datasets so they are amenable to analysis by open-source code. PAGES data stewards are implementing practices that model and promote FAIR data principles (Wilkinson et al. 2016), while making use of, and reducing loss of, valuable data (Kaufman and PAGES 2k special-issue editorial team 2018). Their contribution as curators of community data resources will extend well beyond the lifetime of a working group (Williams et al. 2018).

Figure 1: Data stewards are supported financially by PAGES to serve key roles in the life cycle of PAGES working groups, both in the data-discovery and data-reporting stages.

PAGES-funded data stewards are helping PAGES working groups to achieve their goals in a variety of ways. Specifically:

C-PEAT (Carbon in Peat on Earth through Time) held a series of "data-collection happy hours" to gather contributions of peat-based proxy records from around the world. The data and essential metadata are being standardized for use in ecosystem models to understand carbon and water cycling.
pastglobalchanges.org/c-peat/data

C-SIDE (Cycles of Sea-Ice Dynamics in the Earth system) has compiled a dataset of sea-ice records from the Southern Ocean over the last glacial-interglacial cycle and is preparing a data descriptor for publication.
pastglobalchanges.org/c-side/data

OC3 (Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling) is building on its World Atlas of late Quaternary foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotopes by generating quality-controlled age models for the highest resolution records, with the goal of resolving rapid changes during the last deglacial transition.
pastglobalchanges.org/oc3/data

2k Network is assembling all existing 2k datasets, including those featuring paleo temperature, moisture and isotopic records of the Common Era, to improve their accessibility and interoperability. They plan to develop a one-stop portal that describes the datasets in multiple languages. Within the 2k Network, CoralHydro2k has added 41 seawater oxygen-isotope records to its data compilation. Nearly half of these were previously "hidden" behind paywalls and in grey literature. These data will help calibrate marine carbonate proxies and improve models of ocean-atmosphere interactions. CLIVASH2k's community-wide data call netted 110 new sodium and sulphate datasets from Antarctic ice cores. The data were received in various forms and are being compiled into a uniform format, while fleshing out missing metadata. The data will be used to reconstruct Antarctic atmospheric circulation and surface mass balance over the past 2000 years.
pastglobalchanges.org/2k/data

PALSEA (PALeo constraints on SEA level rise) is merging the recently published Holocene sea-level database with the existing world atlas of last interglacial sea-level indicators. The group is planning to improve the online database interface to help address questions about the drivers of sea-level change at local to global scales.
pastglobalchanges.org/palsea/data

PEOPLE 3000 (PalEOclimate and PeopLing of the Earth) is expanding its global compilation of archaeological radiocarbon data to support research on human paleodemography.
pastglobalchanges.org/people-3000/data

SISAL (Speleothem Isotope Synthesis and AnaLysis) is updating its well-established database to include speleothem trace-element time series. It plans to develop a computer app to enhance database accessibility. pastglobalchanges.org/sisal/data

Any member of a PAGES working group can apply for a Data Steward Scholarship. Contact your working group leaders. For more information see the PAGES website: pastglobalchanges.org/dss